Champignons today have become the kind of mushroom that is available for growing at home. The time between planting the mycelium in the substrate and obtaining the first fruits is minimal. No special conditions are required for mushroom cultivation. It is enough just to provide a cool room with high air humidity. A basement or cellar is fine.
Champignons can be grown both for personal use and for sale. But it is important to know that the substrate for their growth when wet exudes a rather strong odor. It is not advisable to keep it in a residential area.
Where and on what do mushrooms grow?
The very first and most important step in the successful cultivation of mushrooms is the correct preparation of the substrate. It must be prepared with high quality in compliance with all stages.
The mushroom substrate consists of:
- 25% compost (wheat and rye straw)
- 75% horse manure
There is experience in growing champignons based on chicken manure or cow dung, but you should not expect a high yield in this case.
The substrate is prepared in an open space on the street or in a well-ventilated room, since ammonia, carbon dioxide and moisture will be released during its fermentation. Additional additives per 100 kg of substrate are:
- 2 kg of urea
- 2 kg superphosphate
- 5 kg of chalk
- 8 kg of plaster
As a result, we get almost 300 kg of the finished substrate. With such a mass, you can fill a mycelium with an area of 3 square meters. m.
If a decision is made to prepare compost based on chicken manure, then the proportions will be as follows:
- 100 kg of straw
- 100 kg of litter
- 300 l of water
The procedure for preparing the substrate is as follows.
- Straw is soaked in a large, spacious container.
- The straw is laid in alternating layers with manure. There should be 3 layers of straw and 3 layers of manure.
- Straw in the process of laying in layers is moistened with water. Three layers of straw (100 kg) will take about 300 liters.
- During the laying of the layers, urea (2 kg) and superphosphate (0.5 kg) are gradually added in small portions.
- Mix thoroughly.
- Add chalk and the remainder of superphosphate, gypsum.
The resulting substrate is left to undergo the decay process. In this case, the temperature in the mixture will rise to 70 degrees. After 21 days, the compost will be completely ready for further use.
When purchasing planting material, you should not save. Therefore, they acquire only the highest quality mycelium (mycelium). It must be grown under special laboratory conditions. Today mycelium producers present two types of planting material:
- Compost mycelium
- Grain mycelium
Grain mycelium is produced in plastic bags. Store it for about 6 months at a temperature of 0 to 4 degrees. Grain mycelium is used at the rate of 0.4 kg per 100 kg of substrate (mycelium area is 1 sq. M).
Compost mycelium is sold in glass containers. Its shelf life depends on the temperature. At zero degrees, it can last for about a year, but if the temperature is at 20 degrees, then the mycelium must be used within 3 weeks. Compost mycelium is used at the rate of 0.5 kg per 1 square meter of substrate. Its yield is much lower than that of grain.
A properly prepared substrate will surely spring when pressed. Before placing mycelium into it, it must undergo a pasteurization (heat treatment) process. After heating, the substrate cools down to 25 degrees. A mycelium of 1 square meter is laid with about 100 kg of substrate with a layer of about 30 cm.
Planting mycelium and caring for mycelium
They take a piece of mycelium the size of a chicken egg and put it into the substrate by about 5 cm. Each portion of mycelium is placed at a distance of 20 cm from each other. A staggered arrangement is used for landing.
Another method involves uniform distribution (dusting) of the entire surface of the substrate with mycelium. You also need to deepen by no more than 5 cm.
Further actions are to provide the necessary conditions for the engraftment and germination of the mycelium. Air humidity should be kept at around 90%. The substrate must also be kept moist at all times. To prevent it from drying out, the myceliums can be covered with sheets of paper. Watering the substrate is carried out through the paper. An important condition for mycelium engraftment is a constantly maintained substrate temperature at a level of 22 to 27 degrees. Any temperature deviations from the norm must be adjusted immediately.
The germination time of the mycelium is approximately 7 to 14 days. After this period, the substrate needs to be sprinkled with a casing layer of soil about 3 cm. It is prepared independently from one part of sand and nine parts of peat. About 50 kg of casing layer will be consumed per square meter of mycelium.
The covering layer is kept on the substrate for three days, then the air temperature in the basement or cellar is reduced to 15-17 degrees. The cover soil is moistened with a spray bottle, and the room is constantly ventilated. Drafts are not allowed.
The process of self-cultivation of champignons in a cellar or basement is not too complicated and time-consuming. The period from planting to harvesting the first crop is 120 days. Only those mushrooms in which the plates under the cap are not yet visible are suitable for eating. Those mushrooms that are large are overripe, and dark brown plastics are forbidden to be used for food. They can cause poisoning.
The mushroom must not be cut, but carefully plucked with a twisting motion. The resulting depression is sprinkled with a covering substrate and moistened.
The mycelium will bear fruit for about 2 weeks. The number of crops harvested during this period is 7. Up to 14 kg of crop is harvested from one square of the area.
Growing mushrooms in bags
For growing champignons in large volumes for sale through retail chains I use polymer bags. This method has received its recognition in many countries. With its help, a large harvest is obtained.
- For the manufacture of the bag, a polymer film is used. The capacity of each bag varies from 25 to 35 kg.
- The bags should be of just such a volume so that it is convenient to work with them. In addition, the correct arrangement of the bags affects the number of mushrooms grown. They are usually staggered or parallel.
- So when installing bags with a diameter of about 0.4 m in a staggered arrangement, only 10% of the usable area will be lost, while their arbitrary installation gives losses of up to 20%.
- The height and width of the bags may vary. You need to proceed from their conditions and convenience of work, as well as the physical capabilities of the basement (cellar).
The method of growing mushrooms in bags is less costly, since they do not require specially mounted shelves or containers to place them. If it becomes necessary to use the area of the room as efficiently as possible, then a multi-tiered system can be created for the location of the bags. The advantage of this method also lies in the speed of dealing with emerging diseases or pests. The infected bag can be easily removed from healthy neighbors and destroyed, while if the mycelium is infected, it will have to remove its entire area entirely.
It is important to remember that growing mushrooms is a rather laborious process. If champignons are grown for sale, then it is impossible to do without the use of agricultural machinery to facilitate the work of the workers.
Experienced mushroom pickers can list a large number of methods they have tested for growing mushrooms on their own in a basement (cellar). Each method has its own advantages and disadvantages. The main thing is adherence to the cultivation technology, strict adherence to all instructions and requirements. The result is the achievement of the desired result and obtaining a rich harvest of mushrooms.
How to grow champignons at home (at home)
How to grow champignons at home. Part 1
How to grow champignon mushrooms
Authorization on the site
It should be borne in mind that champignon is a very complex culture, requiring strict adherence to the techniques and conditions of its cultivation, otherwise your work will be wasted. Therefore, before you start growing mushrooms, you should carefully study the recommendations for their cultivation.
Champignon box-chest designed by amateur mushroom grower V. A. Chernenko (a more detailed description of such a mushroom holder is given in the magazine "Household economy", 1981, No. 5 and 6 (V. D. Chernenko "My hobby is champignons", pp. 38-40 and 42-45 or in the brochure of this author): 1 - sealing rubber tape 2 - cover with foam 3 - ventilation mesh 4 - box 5 - synthetic panel 6 - foam seal 7 - concrete panel 8 - air supply duct 9 - corrugated concrete slab 10 - outlet from the air supply channel (in cm).
So what decides the success of a business? It turns out that all the factors associated with the cultivation of these mushrooms are extremely important: the room, temperature and humidity, compost and the method of its preparation, the quality of the mycelium and the cultivation technology, as well as the care of the crop and harvesting.
Premises. Champignons can be grown both outdoors in shaded areas and indoors (the latter method is more reliable and ensures a stable yield, since it allows you to control the conditions).
Uninsulated basements, cellars, sheds, dugouts, small greenhouses shaded with straw mats, where you can constantly maintain a temperature of 14-25 ° C and an air humidity of 60-90%, can be used as premises in the warm season.
A device for making ridge ridges.
There are special mushrooms in the form of chests buried in the ground. The walls and lid of such a chest, located at the northern wall of the garden house, should be insulated as much as possible with polystyrene, peat, and straw. This insulation serves as a reliable insulation in cold weather and protects the crop from overheating during hot weather. Both low and high temperatures, deviating even, it would seem, a little from the above, have a bad effect on the culture of champignons, significantly reduce their yield and can cause diseases of mushrooms and even their death.
In the autumn-winter period, mushrooms can be grown in a heated basement, a temperature-controlled cellar or in a greenhouse.
In this case, the greenhouse roof should be covered with straw mats or dark foil to protect it from light.
As we said, light is not required to grow mushrooms. In addition to a certain temperature and humidity, champignons, during their development, require constant free access of fresh air, but they do not tolerate drafts, which must be taken into account when choosing a room for growing these mushrooms.
Experience shows that on a garden plot it is advisable to have a mushroom with a usable area of at least 3 m2, and mushrooms in it can be grown not only on ridges, including on two- and three-ridged ridges, but also on racks and in boxes, which, like racks can be placed on two floors: this will double the usable area of the room. The choice of the optimal usable area of the premises is also important because when composting, it can be fermented successfully only in a pile with a volume of at least 1 m3.
The traditional substrate for growing mushrooms is compost prepared on the basis of fresh horse manure (20-25% by volume) and straw (75-80%). However, since horse manure is now very scarce, it is being replaced with cow manure or broiler manure.
The methods for preparing composts based on fresh horse and cow manure are similar, therefore, our further calculations are based on the amount of compost that is obtained with an initial mass of 100 kg of straw: with subsequent additions and fermentation, this will give 250-300 kg of finished substrate, which is enough for laying 2 , 5-3 m2 of usable area for mushrooms. As the experience of amateur mushroom growers shows, picking mushrooms even in such a small area at a time will be about 45 kg, which is 3-4 times higher than picking even the most fruitful vegetables from the same area.
Composting, or fermentation of the substrate, is a complex microbiological process. It is also called combustion, because under the influence of microorganisms, a significant increase in temperature occurs in a pile (pile) of straw and manure. In the depths of such a pile, the temperature reaches 65-70 ° C. At the same time, there is an abundant release of ammonia, carbon dioxide and water vapor. Therefore, it is necessary to prepare compost in a well-ventilated room or outdoors, but always under a canopy that protects against rain, which can overmoisten the substrate and wash out nutrients from it. If it is impossible to make a canopy, the pile should be covered from above with plastic wrap or roofing felt, while the side surfaces of the stack should remain open for aeration of the compost.
In later formulations, it is recommended to use 100 kg of manure per 100 kg of straw. Compost of this composition has proven itself well, however, with the existing shortage of manure, you can also use such a ratio as 35-50 kg of manure per 100 kg of straw (which, by the way, was used by Russian mushroom growers at the beginning of the 20th century).
The straw should be clean, free from mold, from areas not treated with pesticides. Compost preparation consists of several stages. First, the straw is soaked for a day in a tank or simply poured abundantly with water from a hose or bucket. Then the straw and manure are stacked in layers, so that it contains at least 3-4 layers of manure and 3-4 layers of straw. Each layer of straw is additionally slightly moistened and sprinkled with urea or ammonium nitrate, approximately 600 g per layer, so that 2.5 kg of fertilizer is needed for all 100 kg of straw.
Diagram of the formation of a compost pile (pile), the optimal dimensions of the pile after the first break (in cm).
Practice shows that the straw can be pre-soaked and not soaked, but then when stacking it needs to be moistened more significantly. A total of 100 kg of straw should consume 350-400 liters of water.
After 5-7 days (depending on the intensity of combustion of the compost, which is influenced by the air temperature), the first stirring (shaking) of the stack is performed with a pitchfork. In this case, it is necessary to ensure that the outer parts of the compost fall into the pile, that is, a more uniform composting of the entire mass occurs. At the first mixing, 7-8 kg of gypsum or alabaster is added to the compost, which significantly improves the structure of the compost. After punching, the compost is piled up again, and its optimal dimensions are 1.5 m in width and height and at least 1.2 m in length. Only this volume of substrate ensures good combustion and, as a result, good quality of the compost.
After 3-4 days, a second cut follows, in which 2 kg of superphosphate and 5 kg of chalk are evenly introduced into the compost, and also, if the compost is dry, water. After another 4 days, the third, and then at the same interval and the fourth break follows, during which water is also added if necessary. With all interruptions, thorough shaking and mixing of the mixture should be carried out. After the fourth cut, 3-4 days later, the compost is usually ready. By this time, the smell of ammonia disappears, the whole mass has a dark brown uniform color, the straw becomes soft and easily torn, the compost does not stick to hands, when compressed it is slightly springy, and a wet trace remains on the palm, which is an indicator of normal humidity (about 60% ).
If the compost is waterlogged and when squeezed in the hand, drops of water easily stand out from it, you need to scatter it for a short while for drying, adding 1-2 kg of chalk, or just carry out another interruption.
In total, it takes 20-22 days to prepare the compost.
The main stages of compost preparation
Agricultural practices and terms of their implementation when growing mushrooms
In connection with the construction of broiler factories and large poultry farms, it became possible to use fresh or dried poultry manure mixed with straw to prepare champignon compost. The scheme for preparing such a compost is almost the same as when using cow or horse manure, except that mineral fertilizers and chalk are not applied. Only gypsum and alabaster need to be added to such compost at the first interruption. The ratio of straw to poultry manure is the same, that is, 100 kg of poultry manure and 250-300 liters of water are taken per 100 kg of straw. With this method of preparing compost, the straw should be pre-soaked for two or three days, after which the stack is already laid and 3-4 cuttings.
Any straw can be used for the preparation of mushroom composts, however, the best results are obtained using wheat straw or winter rye.
The correct course of the compost preparation process is judged by the temperature of its combustion. Already on the second or third day after laying the stack, the temperature inside it at a depth of 25-30 cm from the surface should reach 55-70 ° C and be maintained at this level for the entire composting period.
Good results are obtained if the compost is pasteurized instead of 3-4 interruptions, which will significantly improve its quality. Pasteurization of the "green", under-composted substrate consists in keeping it for 12 hours at a temperature of 58-60 ° C, and then gradually decreasing it within 7-8 days by 1-1.5 ° C per day and thus bringing it to 46-48 ° C. After that, by strong ventilation, the substrate is cooled to 24-26 ° C. The finished compost is dark brown in color and has no ammonia odor at all.
In the commercial (industrial) production of champignons, the substrate is pasteurized in bulk, loading it into special chambers or pasteurization tunnels. Under the conditions of amateur cultivation, "green" compost can be placed in boxes or plastic bags with a capacity of 5-15 kg and pasteurized by supplying steam to a film greenhouse. It is possible to use different devices here. It is only important to maintain the required temperature for the specified time.
However, in amateur cultivation, pasteurization of the compost may well be replaced by two additional interruptions.
We dwelled in such detail on the compost preparation technology because it is at this stage that the foundation for the successful cultivation of mushrooms is laid. Incorrect, hasty and careless composting usually results in failure.
Composting and planting mycelium
The finished compost, as already mentioned, is placed in ridges or placed in boxes or on racks and lightly compacted. Normally laid and compacted compost, when pressed by hand, slightly bounces. The height of the compacted compost layer should be 25-30 cm, which will require approximately 100 kg of compost per 1 m2.
Recently, plastic bags have been used to grow mushrooms. They should contain at least 10-25 kg of compost, and the height of its layer in the bag should be at least 25-30 cm.In 2-3 days after filling, when the temperature of the compost in the beds or boxes drops to 23-27 ° C (optimal temperature - 24-25 ° C), the mycelium is planted.
A high yield of mushrooms can only be provided by a high-quality sterile mycelium grown at a specialized enterprise. For planting, the mycelium can be used only once. It is advisable to purchase it in the warm season, so that it does not freeze during transportation. The shelf life of mycelium at a temperature of 0 to 4 ° C is 6 months, and at a higher temperature (10-18 ° C) - no more than 20 days.
Compost mycelium can be stored at about 0 ° C for about a year. This mycelium is not as productive as grain, but it is less susceptible to external conditions (temperature, humidity and their changes). In addition, the compost mycelium is better stored and does not lose its qualities longer. Grain mycelium is produced in plastic bags, and compost - in glass jars.
The consumption rate of the grain mycelium is 0.7 l (500 g) per 1 m2 of the planting area. For 1.5 m2, 700 g of compost mycelium is enough.
Raise the compost with a peg or hand and place a piece of the compost mycelium the size of a matchbox or a handful of grain mycelium into the formed hole to a depth of 4-5 cm. Then the mycelium is covered with compost from above and lightly pressed against it. Planting sites are staggered at a distance of 20-25 cm. The grain mycelium can be simply scattered, taking into account the rate of its consumption per 1 m2, over the surface of the garden and then covered with a layer of compost of 4-5 cm, slightly compacting it.
At this time, the room should be very humid so that the planted ridges or boxes do not dry out. If their surface dries up, cover the ridges with absorbent paper or burlap and carefully moisten this shelter from a watering can with a fine strainer or from a hose with a spray. In this case, the water should not get on the mycelium.
The air temperature in the room during this period should be 23-25 ° C, and the temperature in the compost 23-27 ° C. If the temperature in the compost exceeds 27 ° C, the beds need to be cooled by ventilating the room well. If the temperature is lower than normal, they should be covered with dry burlap or straw mats and the room temperature should be increased by 2-3 ° C. 7-12 days after planting the mycelium, it should already grow well, which is checked by slightly lifting the compost at the planting site. With normal survival and growth, by this time the mycelium should have grown in the form of white cobweb threads 5-8 cm around the landing site.
Covering compost with cover soil
After 12-20 days (depending on the growth rate of the mycelium), the surface of the boxes or plastic bags is covered with a cover soil - a layer of moist earth 3-4 cm thick. Without this cover layer, fungi will not form. The following mixtures can be used as cover soil:
a) 9 parts peat and 1 part chalk
b) 5 parts of peat, 4 parts of garden or turf soil, 0.5 parts of chalk
c) garden or sod soil and 3% (of its volume) chalk.
Chalk is needed to create the acidity of the soil that is optimal for fruiting mushrooms. The approximate consumption of cover soil per 1 m2 of the ridge is 3-4 buckets with a capacity of 10 liters. The applied topsoil is slightly compacted.
3-5 days after the topcoat is applied, the room temperature should be reduced to 14-17 ° C. Under all conditions, it should not exceed 20 ° C: at a higher temperature, mushrooms will not grow. The soil on the ridges should always be moist. When dry, a crust forms on it, which prevents both the growth of the mycelium and the access of air to it. Therefore, you need to regularly moisten the beds, very carefully watering them from a watering can or a hose with a fine strainer or spray. The stream of water should be weak, since moisture should remain in the casing layer and in no case penetrate into the compost: this will lead to the death of the mycelium and can drastically reduce or even destroy the entire crop.
In 15-20 days after backfilling the casing layer and, accordingly, in 27-40 days after planting the mycelium (depending on the air temperature in the room), the first mushrooms will appear. First, champignons grow in nests of 5-8 or even 20 pieces. When the mycelium grows throughout the ridge, the mushrooms will grow evenly over its entire surface.
From the moment the mushrooms appear, the room must be thoroughly ventilated, however, avoiding drafts and, in general, intensive air movement. To maintain a constant air humidity of 85-90%, you can humidify the floor of the room, if it is cement, or put containers with water.
Mushrooms should be picked carefully so as not to damage the fruiting body and mycelium. To do this, the mushrooms must be carefully twisted out of the soil.
Places where plucked mushrooms grew should be immediately sprinkled with cover soil (a small amount of which must be left after filling the beds). The earth is also useful if a dense white crust from the mycelium (stroma) forms on the soil surface with a lack of fresh air. This crust is carefully removed, and the place is sprinkled with a casing mixture. At the same time, it is necessary to increase the flow of fresh air.
Moisturizing the ridges and air, ventilating the room, picking mushrooms and adding to the collection sites is the care of the mushroom culture during the period of their fruiting.
Fruiting of mushrooms indoors, depending on growing conditions, lasts 2-4 months. During this time, according to the described method, it is possible to collect from 4-6 to 10-15 kg of mushrooms from 1 m2, and with very good care, even more. Champignons bear fruit in waves. After the appearance of a significant number of mushrooms, a decline occurs when they appear in single specimens or disappear altogether. A week after the end of the first wave, which lasts 3-4 days, the second wave of fruiting begins. There are up to seven such waves. Usually the first 2-3 waves are the most productive, when up to 70% of the crop is obtained.
Champignons are harvested at such a stage of maturity, when the film connecting the edges of the cap with the stem and covering the pink plates of the mushroom is stretched, but has not yet broken. You can also collect more mature mushrooms with a torn film, but if their plates have become dark brown, and the mushroom itself is flabby, it is no longer possible to eat it: like any overripe mushroom, it can cause poisoning.
In a heated room, mushrooms can be grown in the autumn-winter period (since no light is needed for their development), thus obtaining up to three harvests a year.
It should be remembered that with repeated cultivation of champignons in the same room, the mushrooms are damaged by various insects (mainly fly larvae), mites, as well as bacteria and microscopic fungi, which accumulate there when the premises are reused and can cause massive fungal attack.
It is impossible to use any chemical preparations to combat them, since these substances can accumulate in mushrooms, making them unsuitable for food. Therefore, preventive measures are very important to combat mushroom diseases and pests. At the end of the collection of mushrooms, you need to lay the used soil as far away from the mushroom as possible, the room should be washed, dried well and ventilated. If during fruiting diseases or pests of champignons were noticed, then before reuse the room should be disinfected - spray it with a 2-4% solution of bleach or smear it with milk of lime, for which quicklime is diluted in water at the rate of 1 kg per bucket of water. After disinfection, the room must be well ventilated before placing new mushroom composts.
Growing mushrooms in the open field
Champignons can also be grown outdoors, but in this case, the harvest largely depends on the vagaries of the weather. In the spring, as soon as the snow melts and the ground warms up, you can start growing mushrooms in the shady areas of the garden. The place should be chosen dry and protected from the wind. The beds can be made both on the surface of the soil and at depth, which will better retain moisture and maintain a more even temperature. Surface beds are made 1-1.5 m wide with an arbitrary length. To deepen the ridges, a ditch 60-90 cm wide and 30-40 cm deep is dug. A layer of broken brick, crushed stone, etc., 8-10 cm thick, is poured onto the bottom, and compost prepared by the method described above is laid on top and compacted. To protect the ridges from rapid drying out and heavy rains, you can make light sheds or cover the ridges with straw mats placed on a stand made of light slats. You can simply cover the ridges with a 15-centimeter layer of straw, which is removed only for the time of planting the mycelium, filling the casing layer of the earth and harvesting. In this case, care must be taken to ensure sufficient air access to the ridges. When stroma appear, the straw must be removed for a while. Such beds are moistened as needed with the same precautions as when caring for a fruiting mushroom culture. The first mushrooms in the open air should appear 1-1.5 months after planting the mycelium. Fruiting lasts about 4 months, but in hot weather the yield of mushrooms decreases and fruiting may even stop altogether. However, with the onset of cool weather, mushrooms reappear.
It should be remembered that champignons are a perishable product, so they must be processed immediately after harvest. Their shelf life should not exceed a day, but if the mushrooms are frozen in a freezer at a temperature of -18 ° C, they can be stored for up to a year. Mushrooms are used fresh, dried, pickled.
Only general principles and basic technological methods of mushroom cultivation are presented here. These techniques may vary depending on the conditions. For example, some mushroom growers fill up the casing layer immediately after planting mycelium: it prevents the compost from drying out when it is difficult to maintain the required air humidity, and does not allow the compost in the garden to cool down when the air temperature is not high enough.
Here the mushroom grower is provided with sufficient scope for creativity in this fascinating business. However, in any case, it is necessary to strictly adhere to the basic conditions (temperature, humidity, aeration).
Throughout the cultivation of mushrooms, it is recommended to keep records, noting the timing of agrotechnical measures, the features of their implementation, the temperature and humidity of the air and substrate. This will allow accumulating and generalizing experience, identifying some mistakes and avoiding them in the future.
At the end of the fruiting of mushrooms, compost can be used as an excellent organic fertilizer for vegetables, fruit and berry and ornamental crops. It is not inferior in its properties to horse manure and contributes to the good development of green plants.
There are three groups of champignon varieties, differing in the color of the cap: white, cream and brown. White and cream varieties are usually more productive, but less resistant to adverse conditions (fluctuations in temperature and humidity) and disease. Brown varieties are less susceptible to diseases and better tolerate adverse conditions, but less productive. Based on this and his capabilities, the mushroom grower must decide which variety to choose.
How to propagate a mushroom mycelium (from the experience of Russian mushroom growers). The mushroom planting material - sterile mycelium - is often in short supply, especially during the planting season. But the mushroom growers who supplied Moscow with fresh mushrooms at the end of the 19th century had no idea about the sterile mycelium produced by the factory, and at the same time they collected considerable harvests. Therefore, we will try to turn to the experience of Russian gardeners who successfully grew mushrooms without a sterile mycelium. True, they did not receive 20 kg per 1 m2, as now, but they could do half the harvest, and this is also a lot and may well satisfy an amateur mushroom grower. There will be enough mushrooms for your family, and if you wish, there will be something left for sale. Such a harvest fully justifies the investment and labor costs. The experience of amateur mushroom growing is summarized in the book by PI Kamenogradsky with a rather eloquent title: "Profitable mushroom growing" (St. Petersburg, 1907).
There were several ways of harvesting and using wild-growing mycelium. Let's dwell on three of them, which to a large extent guarantee a mushroom harvest.
The first way.Noticing in the summer where champignons grow (usually near livestock farms, on pastures, dumps, heaps of manure), in September they remove 1-2 cm of the top layer of the soil and select from under it dense pieces of soil, permeated with white threads of mycelium with a characteristic pleasant mushroom smell ...
Such pieces of at least 10 x 10 cm in size (up to 30 x 30 cm) are slightly dried in a cool shady place and stored in baskets or wooden boxes (in the latter case, the pieces of mycelium are laid out in one layer) in a dry, cool room at a temperature of no higher than 5 -7 ° C. In spring, mycelium can be used to grow mushrooms, preferably outdoors. Before planting, the mycelium must be carefully sorted out, rejecting pieces with thick threads (strands) and a faint smell. The method was tested by the author of this book. The yield, however, turned out to be low - 2-3 kg per 1 m2 per season. In closed rooms, such a mycelium develops even worse, although there are exceptions.
Second way.The mycelium collected by the first method is propagated in a greenhouse, greenhouse or basement in boxes with compost, prepared in the same way as for growing the mushrooms themselves. In this case, the compost is best made from horse manure. The compost layer in the boxes should be about 60 cm.Pieces of the harvested mycelium (preferably fresh) are added to a depth of 10 cm with a distance of 25-30 cm between them.To the substrate does not dry out, moist humus soil is poured on top with a layer of 5 cm.After two weeks, on the surface the soil begins to appear mycelium in the form of a white bloom. The room temperature at this time should be 20-25 ° C.
When the main thickness of the substrate is permeated with white thin threads (you can find out about this if you carefully dig out the substrate in separate places), the pieces of mycelium are removed and dried in a shady place. They are then placed in baskets and stored in a cool dry place until planting. Such a mycelium is more productive than wild, non-propagated. It is suitable for growing champignons indoors, but a guaranteed mushroom yield is obtained if you use it fresh, that is, immediately after breeding.
This method of propagation of wild mushroom mycelium was used by the famous Russian gardener of the middle of the 19th century. EA Grachev, but he prepared the substrate differently. For this purpose, Grachev used greenhouses, arranged on dry sandy places, the bottom of the greenhouses consisted of fine sand with an admixture of black soil or greenhouse humus. Such a soil, according to Grachev, is the closest to the natural growing conditions of mushrooms. On the bottom of the greenhouse, half-rotted straw manure was laid with a layer of 30-40 cm, on top a layer (about 18 cm) of fresh hot manure, and on it - a layer (18 cm) of ordinary greenhouse soil. In this substrate, on straw manure, the wild-growing mycelium was placed. The greenhouse was usually laid in June. 2-3 weeks after the laying, white filaments of mycelium appear where the straw manure comes into contact with the bottom of the greenhouse, then it spreads over the entire layer of manure, and after 5-6 weeks the mushrooms themselves appear. times (this usually occurs in August), but no more than three (three waves of fruiting), the soil is removed, and the compost sprouted by the mycelium is selected in large (30 x 30 cm) pieces, slightly dried and folded into baskets, transferred to storage in a cool place ... It is necessary to select pieces with thin filaments of mycelium, which have a bluish-whitish color. Such a mycelium can be used immediately, fresh, but it is better to keep it for 2-4 weeks to dry out a little: in this case, it gives the best result. The mycelium with thick yellowish threads (older and depleted) is discarded. You can, after drying, lay the mycelium for storage. For both short and long-term storage (up to 6 months), the room temperature should not exceed 5-7 ° C of heat (optimal - about 2 ° C). It is recommended to cover the baskets with matting, in this case the evaporation of moisture from large pieces goes slowly outside, they are dried, which protects the mycelium from rotting, so it can be stored for up to six months. Storage conditions have a significant effect on yield.
Some amendments should be made to the application of the Grachev method. From the point of view of modern knowledge about the culture of champignons, it is more expedient to collect mushrooms in greenhouses where mycelium is grown up to two times: fruiting depletes it, and the last distillation (cultivation) of mushrooms is not so effective. It is enough to collect the mushrooms once to make sure that we have a good fruiting mycelium. When the substrate is almost completely penetrated by the mycelium threads, it is harvested. It is better to remove the emerging small mushrooms immediately.
Third way.The so-called artificial, or cultural, mycelium is harvested from fruiting ridges, originally planted with sterile grain or compost mycelium. After two or three waves of fruiting, they carefully rake the soil layer and take out pieces of compost, penetrated by mycelium, choosing areas with especially dense threads. They are dried and stored in the same way as with other methods of harvesting mycelium. This mycelium has both advantages and disadvantages. In comparison with the wild one, it is fully acclimatized for growing in artificial conditions.
At the same time, the cultural mycelium, unfortunately, is rapidly degenerating. After two or three uses, yields begin to decline, and the mushrooms themselves become smaller. In this case, experienced mushroom growers advise adding fresh wild mushrooms to the cultivated mycelium and growing them in greenhouses together in the second way.
In conclusion, it should be added that with such a cultivation of champignons, it is difficult to guarantee a significant harvest. The mushroom grower here takes a certain risk, and yet his work will be rewarded, albeit a small one, with a harvest of mushrooms in his own garden or in his personal plot.
What is the composition of the soil?
Is it possible to grow champignons at home? Of course, this is within the power of a farmer or owner of a private backyard without any experience. The main thing is to stock up on knowledge in this matter and clearly follow the instructions. The most time consuming process in mushroom cultivation is soil preparation. For a mycelium area of three square meters, 100 kilograms of plant ingredients will be required, which include the following:
- Cereal grains, you can use rye or wheat.
- Fallen leaves of plants.
- Tops from tomatoes or potatoes.
In addition, the composition of the soil should include:
- Horse or cow manure in the amount of half a centner.
- Water - 300-400 liters.
- Urea and superphosphate in an amount of two kilograms each.
- Plaster - seven to eight, and chalk - five kilograms.
You can prepare a different formulation using poultry droppings. Other ingredients and their quantity are taken here:
- Litter and straw - centered.
- Water - 300 liters.
- Gypsum, alabaster - as in the previous composition.
- Urea is two kilograms.
The mushroom growing technology consists of several stages. Check out the step-by-step instructions for the process.
- Preparation of substrate for mushrooms. The basis of a quality substrate is horse manure and straw. Layered in layers and aged for 21 days, these ingredients are the best choice for growing mushrooms.
- Selection of mycelium of champions. The mushroom mycelium can be compost and grain. For beginners in growing mushrooms, I recommend staying on the grain mushroom mycelium, it is the most fertile and adapted to development at home.
- Planting champignons. Before planting the mushroom mycelium, take care of heating the substrate to 27-28 degrees. If you are planting grain mycelium, then it is enough to scatter it over the surface, lightly sprinkling it with soil on top. Planting the compost mushroom mycelium provides for the creation of holes at a distance of 25 cm from each other in a checkerboard pattern.
- Care for mushrooms. If the conditions for growing mushrooms are met, no additional action is required from you. High air temperature and room humidity, regular spraying of plantings with water, as well as top dressing of the soil with a mixture of peat and chalk in a ratio of 9: 1. Reduce the air temperature gradually to a comfortable 18 degrees.
- Harvesting champignons. Champignons fully ripen 4 months after planting. Unscrew the mushroom carefully, a new one will grow in this place. Only mushrooms with a whole membrane between the cap and the leg are suitable for eating. Mushrooms with a darkened cap are forbidden to eat, they can cause poisoning.
What is needed for champignons
In nature, mushrooms can grow almost anywhere, preferring open, damp places with sufficient nutritious soil.
Cultivation at home requires compliance with rather stringent requirements:
- air humidity must be at least 60%
- air temperature when planting mycelium is 24 - 27 degrees, when forcing fruit bodies 15 - 17 degrees
- the nutritional value of the soil must be high
- constant ventilation of the room without drafts is obligatory
- mushrooms do not need lighting, they grow better in the dark.
For year-round cultivation of champignons, premises without sudden changes in temperature are well suited - a cellar, basement or pantry.
Substrate for growing mushrooms
The soil for the cultivation of mushrooms must be carefully prepared. Experienced experts recommend growing mushrooms by placing the soil in bags or containers. If possible, use different rooms for planting mycelium or spores of the fungus and growing the fruiting body, rearranging bags or containers.
For the preparation of the substrate, manure (preferably horse) and straw are used. For a plot of 1 sq. m you need to take:
- 40 kg of straw
- 20 kg of manure (horse or mullein)
- 800 g of superphosphate and ammonium sulfate
- 2.8 kg urea
- 2 kg of chalk.
It is necessary to soak the straw in warm water for one day. Then, in a suitable container, lay straw and manure in layers (about 6 layers), spilling each layer with warm water. After three days, mix by adding part of the urea, superphosphate and ammonium sulfate.
Repeat mixing and adding fertilizers several times, adding chalk last. The compost "ripens" within 27 - 30 days.
Planting and growing champignons
For sowing, use mycelium grown on organic residues, or cereal mycelium, in which the grain of oats, wheat or rye is a substrate for fungal spores.
Planting technology is different for these species. The grains are scattered over the surface of the substrate, then sprinkled with soil. Organically grown mycelium should be laid out in holes (3 - 5 cm) at a distance of 15 - 20 cm from each other. The soil temperature should not be higher than 28 ° С, the room temperature should not be lower than 27 ° С, the air humidity should reach 90%.
Mushroom filaments form on the surface after 2 weeks. They are sprinkled with a mixture of 5 parts of peat, 1 part of limestone and 4 parts of earth. After 3 - 5 days, the room temperature should be reduced to 15 - 17 degrees, the air humidity should be maintained at least 60% and ventilated, avoiding drafts.
After 3 months, the mushrooms appear and grow within 1 to 2 weeks.
Observing the cultivation technology, temperature regime and maintaining the necessary air humidity, it is possible to organize the cultivation of champignons in small quantities for personal use, even on a balcony or loggia.
Growing champignons in the country
At the dacha or in a personal plot, mushrooms can be grown in a greenhouse or just in a garden bed.
Greenhouses for mushrooms can be made of polycarbonate, glass or film, or you can use greenhouses. Since mushrooms cannot stand direct sunlight, it is necessary to arrange shading. For ventilation, you can use household fans, installing them under the ceiling of the greenhouse to prevent drafts.
Preparing the soil for mushrooms, sowing mycelium and growing are carried out using the same technology.
The simplest and easiest way is to grow mushrooms in a vegetable garden.
The bed is made 1.5 m wide, digging up the soil along with horse or cow dung introduced into it. Arcs are installed over the bed and covered with a film. When the seedlings of zucchini in the garden begin to grow, the mycelium of the mushrooms is planted between the bushes.
If the soil is not allowed to dry out, the mushrooms will grow well in the shade of the wide leaves of the squash.
Growing champignons is a complex but exciting process. With the observance of technology, a sufficient amount of time, concentration and attentiveness, you can grow mushrooms throughout the year.
Long awaited the mushroom crop will appear in 40-50 days from the moment of landing. And when grown over the next two months, you can pick mushrooms six to seven more times. At the same time, about five to ten kilograms of mushrooms are obtained from each square meter. It is necessary to start collecting at a time when a film is still preserved between the cap and the leg. If the cap of the mushroom is split into two parts or the film is damaged, such a specimen should not be eaten.
When collecting each mushroom is twisted, not cut with a knife, like a forest. At this stage, the main thing is to handle the mushroom carefully so that its base is not damaged. After that, you need to slightly fill the hole with a substrate and moisten it a little. Another way to collect mushrooms: one hand of the picker gently holds the lower part of the mushroom leg, and the other separates it from the mycelium with smooth movements.
How to grow champignons
To grow mushrooms, you need 1 ton of straw, 1 ton of fresh chicken manure and 50 kg of gypsum or alabaster. You can reduce the volumes as a percentage. In addition, the whole process must take place in some kind of room. If the compost is collected outdoors, the compost will be infected with flies and mosquitoes.
The straw must be soaked in a container for three days. After that, it must be laid out on the floor in layers, alternating with chicken droppings. Fresh droppings will begin to warm up and release ammonia. It is necessary to stir the compost every 5 days so that the pasteurization process goes evenly and the compost does not burn out. By about day 15, the compost will be ready. It will be necessary to add gypsum to it and can be packaged in containers.
Many growers plant mushrooms in plastic containers, but this is a labor-intensive process and the containers must be disinfected. The easiest way is to take a plastic sleeve about 50 cm wide, tie the bottom end and cut a piece about 40 cm high. Then one person should hold the sleeve and the other person shovels the compost into it. After 2-3 shovels, it is necessary to pour the mycelium. Thus, the mycelium will lay in layers and provide several waves of harvest.
After planting, the compost bags must be taken to the growing site. It could be a basement or a warehouse. For large volumes of cultivation, racks are used to arrange packages.
Growing temperature should be between 15 and 25 degrees. Within 3 weeks, the mycelium should grow and cover each packet. The compost will be covered with a white coating that looks like cotton wool or mold. The bags must be covered with foil so that the top layer does not dry out.
After the packages are completely overgrown, it is necessary to sprinkle the top layer of compost with peat or steamed earth.
To get the mushrooms themselves, the temperature must drop below 16 degrees. This is easy to do in the winter, but rather problematic in the summer. After the temperature drops, after two weeks, small mushrooms will begin to appear. The crop will need to be harvested every day.The higher the bag, the longer the harvest will take. The main harvest will be in the first month. Mushrooms cannot be cut; they must be carefully twisted.
All in all, mushroom growing is a very exciting activity that can provide a good source of income.