Plant thuja (Latin Thuja), or life tree, belongs to the genus gymnosperms of conifers of the Cypress family, such as juniper, sequoia, taxodium, cypress and cypress. Thuja was brought to Europe from East Asia or America. The Latin name of the plant has an ancient Greek root meaning "sacrifice", "incense" - apparently, there is a connection between the name of the plant and the smell of aromatic thuja species ritually burned as incense. The genus includes 6 species, representatives of which sometimes live up to 150 years, although there are also much more mature specimens.
In addition to some species, about 120 varieties of plants are grown in culture, differing in the color and quality of the needles and the shape of the crown. Thuja in landscape design is one of the basic plants and is grown as a tapeworm or in a group, and is also used to decorate alleys, curbs, and create hedges.
Planting and caring for thuja
- Landing: it is possible in the fall, but more reliable in the spring.
- Bloom: the plant is grown as an ornamental deciduous plant.
- Lighting: bright light in the morning and partial shade in the afternoon.
- The soil: nutritious, sandy loam or loamy.
- Watering: by sprinkling. Freshly planted seedlings are watered every week, adults a little less often. Water consumption - from 10 to 50 liters per plant.
- Top dressing: in the spring, full of mineral fertilizer. If you applied fertilizer when planting, the plant is fed for the first time only after two years.
- Cropping: for sanitary purposes - better in spring, and formative pruning for thuja is optional.
- Reproduction: specific plants can be propagated both vegetatively and by seeds, and varietal plants can only be propagated by vegetative methods: cuttings and dividing the bush.
- Pests: false shields and aphids.
- Diseases: brown shute, cytosporosis, fusarium.
Read more about growing thuja below.
Thuja are evergreen shrubs or trees, sometimes in nature reaching 70 m in height with a trunk diameter of 6 m. In culture, thuja rarely grows above 11 meters. In young thujas, the needles are needle-like, soft, light green in color, and in adults, the leaves are of a darker green hue, opposite, scaly. Tui are monoecious plants, their fruits are oval or oblong cones with flat seeds, which ripen in the first year. Thuja is not capricious in care, smoke-resistant, cold-resistant, and such a species as western thuja tolerates even cold winters well.
When to plant
Before planting a thuja, you need to choose a suitable site for it. Thuja is photophilous, however, from being in the sun for a whole day, it dehydrates, and this leads to the fact that thuja does not tolerate winter well. Therefore, the place for the thuja should be bright, but at noon the sun should not fall on it. In addition, thuja does not tolerate drafts.
Soil for thuja is desirable nutritious - sod land with the addition of sand and peat, although thuja also grows on less rich soils - in marshy soils, in sandy loams and in clay. You can plant thuja in spring or autumn, but planting thuja in autumn does not give you confidence that the plant will have time to adapt in the open field before winter.
How to plant
The size of the hole for the thuja depends on the size of the root system of the seedling - it should be 35-40 cm wider and 15-30 cm deeper than the earthen komtuja. If you plant several plants, the distance between them, depending on the size of adult plants, is maintained from 1 to 5 m.When planting thuja along the alley, the distance between the seedlings is kept at 3.5-4 m.A mixture of soil with a small amount of compost is placed at the bottom of the pit, or well rotted manure.
Before planting, the roots of the seedling should be held in a container with water until air bubbles stop coming out. After that, place the tree in the center of the hole, straighten the roots, make sure that the root collar is just above the soil level, fill the hole with good soil mixture, carefully and carefully compact it, trying not to damage the base of the trunk, and water the seedling abundantly at the rate of 1.5- 2 watering cans per plant. When the water is absorbed and the earth slightly subsides, mulch the near-trunk circle with chips, peat, compost or pine bark - the mulch will protect the roots of the thuja from too hot or too cold weather and retain moisture in the soil for longer.
However, do not allow the mulch to cover the trunk or lower branches of the plant - they can rust under the mulch.
Thuja care in the garden
Thuja is very responsive to watering, she especially likes sprinkling. In the first weeks after planting, thuja seedlings are watered weekly at the rate of 10-50 liters of water per seedling, depending on its size. If you arrange sprinkling for young plants, this will not only moisten the soil and water the roots of the thuja, but also wash away the dust from the needles, the stomata of the leaves will open, and the plant will breathe much easier, respectively, all physiological processes will proceed faster. After watering, the soil around the thuja is loosened, but not deeper than 8-10 cm, since the root system of the plant is superficial.
Thuja is fed in spring with a complex mineral fertilizer, for example, a solution of Kemira-universal at the rate of 50-60 g per m². If you applied fertilizer to the soil during planting, then the next time you need to feed the plant only after two years.
Thuja responds well to pruning - the more often and harder you cut it, the thicker and more luxuriant it becomes. There is no strict framework for pruning, but it is better to do this in the spring, before the buds open. If you grow a thuja hedge, then you have no choice: you want it, you don’t want it, but you will have to cut it. Thuja growing like a solitary plant will need at least sanitary and thinning pruning. But if thujas grow in a group, their crowns will have to be formed, otherwise they will look sloppy.
They begin to form the crown when the plants have already grown to the size you need. Sometimes one haircut per year is enough - in the spring, but usually there is a need for re-pruning - in late summer or early autumn. Some forms require constant crown adjustment, but no more than one third of the shoot can be cut at a time, otherwise the plant may weaken. The first pruning of thuja is carried out no earlier than 2-3 years of age. Use a sharpened, heavy-duty pruning shear for trimming so that it does not chew on the shoots or leave dents on them.
Here's as if all the information on how to care for a thuja. As you can see, planting and caring for thuja will not take much of your time, but the healthy appearance of this elegant evergreen plant will surely make your garden more beautiful.
For various reasons, we sometimes have to transplant already mature plants from one place to another. Transplanting conifers is easy enough if you know how to do it. Around medium-sized plants, you need to pierce the soil in a circle with a sharp shovel at a distance of 40-50 cm from the trunk, then carefully pry the plant along with the near-stem section outlined in a circle, remove it from the soil, transport it to a new place with a wheelbarrow, trying not to destroy the earthen lump, and immediately to plant. Larger plants need to be pierced a year before transplanting, so that they have time to grow new young roots inside an earthen coma bounded by a circle - as a result, the earth will not fall apart during extraction, and transportation will be painless for the plant. In a new place, thuja takes root more easily than other conifers.
Pests and diseases
Thuja is susceptible to fungal diseases such as brown shute, fusarium and cytosporosis, which affect the shoots and needles of the plant. In the fight against them, they use the treatment with Bordeaux liquid or Cartocide - the treatment of thuja begins in spring and is repeated every two weeks until the thuja recovers.
Sometimes readers ask us why the thuja turns yellow. The fact is that from insect pests, the plant is pestered by false shields and aphids, which is why the thuja turns yellow and its needles fall off. To get rid of parasites, the plant is treated with Karbofos, Rogor or Decis before bud break, and at the end of June it is sprayed with Aktellik or Chlorophos twice with an interval of two weeks.
Reproduction of thuja
Thuja reproduces both generatively and vegetatively. If you propagate the species thuja, then you can do it by seeds. But the varieties and forms must be propagated vegetatively - by cuttings or by dividing the bush, since the thuja from the seeds does not retain the varietal characteristics of the parent plants.
Propagation by cuttings
Thuja propagation by cuttings is carried out using woody two-three-year-old shoots cut in June 25-40 cm long or semi-lignified shoots of the current year from 10 to 20 cm long.Thuja cuttings are not cut, but torn off with a heel, the place of separation from the mother plant is treated with a solution of heteroauxin, planted to a depth of 1.5-2.5 cm in a mixture of equal parts of turf, peat and sand, spilled for disinfection with a warm solution of potassium permanganate, and cover the planting with plastic wrap.
For successful rooting of cuttings, it is necessary to maintain high air humidity in the greenhouse without waterlogging the substrate, so the soil is not watered, but sprayed from a sprayer. As soon as the cuttings take root, they begin to ventilate and gradually harden, until it is time to remove the film. With the onset of late autumn, the cuttings are covered with dry leaves, sawdust, and preferably spruce branches, and if the temperature drops to -5-7 ºC, a film is thrown over the spruce branches.
Growing thuja from seeds
In order to grow thuja from a seed, you will need three to five years. You need to sow only freshly harvested thuja seeds, having previously subjected them to natural stratification from autumn to spring under the snow or in the refrigerator. In the spring, seeds are sown in beds in partial shade to a depth of only 0.5 cm and lightly sprinkled with sawdust from coniferous trees. Then the crops are covered from the sun with shields, and the soil is kept in a loose and slightly moist state all the time. After the emergence of shoots, the site is mulched with peat.
Twice a month, seedlings are fed with a solution of complete mineral fertilizer. For the first season, seedlings usually grow up to 7-8 cm. Young thuja are covered with spruce branches for the winter, and on top with a film. The next spring, the shelter is removed, and the seedlings are looked after, as last year - they mulch the soil, water it, remove weeds and feed them. In the third spring, when the plants reach a height of 50 cm, they are planted in a permanent place.
Thuja in the winter at the dacha
In the fall, both watering and feeding of thuja are stopped, since the plant must prepare for a dormant period.
How to shelter for the winter
Young plants that are under five years old need to be covered with spruce branches for the winter. Before covering the thuja for the winter, it is hilled high, and the near-stem section is mulched with a thick layer of peat. Adult plants hibernate without shelter, but it is imperative to mulch the area around them.
If too much snow falls in winter, it can break the dense crown and branches of even an adult large thuja. To prevent this from happening, thuja are tied with twine for the winter. At the end of winter, so that the thuja does not suffer from the strong spring sun, a non-woven covering material is thrown over it. Sometimes, from sudden changes in temperature in winter, cracks form on the bark of the thuja. In the spring, they are covered with garden pitch and the bark is tightly pulled together so that the wounds heal.
Types and varieties
Thuja western (Thuja occidentalis)
When we talk about cultural thuja, we mean, first of all, the western thuja species - it is she who is represented in our gardens, parks and squares by a huge number of its varieties, forms and varieties. In Europe, it was introduced into culture in the 16th century. Large specimens of this species reach a height of 8-12 m. Western thuja is a long-liver among trees, it can live up to a thousand years. At a young age, this is a pyramidal tree, subsequently the shape of the crown becomes ovoid.
For landscaping, plants are usually pin-shaped, cone-shaped or columnar. For example:
- thuja brabant - a tree 15-21 m high with a conical crown with a diameter of 3-4 m. The bark is peeling, gray-brown or reddish. The needles are green, scaly. Thuja cones of this variety are oblong-ovate, brown, up to 12 mm long;
- thuja smaragd - This is a stocky variety up to 2 m high with a conical crown and weak branching. On vertically arranged shoots, glossy evergreen branches are far apart from each other. Planting and caring for thuja Smaragd is carried out in accordance with the recommendations in this article. The variety is in great demand.
Among the group of varieties with a spherical crown shape, the most famous are:
- thuja danika - dwarf thuja of Danish selection with gray-brown or reddish peeling bark, thick, soft, shiny green scaly needles, which acquire a brownish tint in winter;
- thuya woodward - spherical thuja of dwarf size - not higher than 2.5 m with a crown diameter of 5 m. Its shoots and branches are straight and flat. The needles are dark green.
They attract gardeners and varieties of a cascading, threadlike shape, which include:
- thuja filiformis - a tree up to 1.5 m high with a dense rounded or wide cone-shaped crown, long filamentous hanging shoots that hardly branch. Young needles are light green, in winter they acquire a brown tint.
Not so long ago, the heather-shaped form of thuja was bred, for example:
- thuya ericoides - no more than a meter in height, reminiscent of a juniper, with a rounded multi-peaked wide-conical crown, numerous thin flexible shoots, straight or curved, and subulate soft needles, matte above, yellow-green, gray-green below. In winter, the needles turn brown.
A form with two types of needles on one plant - acicular and scaly, with a strange growth of the crown has also been bred: at 8-10 years of age, it splits into several peaks and a group of plants is formed instead of one thuja.
Thuja folded (Thuja plicata)
The culture also cultivates the type of folded thuja, or giant thuja, which grows in nature along the Pacific coast and is the highest mountain type of thuja. It reaches a height of 60 m with a trunk diameter of 3-4 m, although in culture its achievements are not so high. Thuja folded has several decorative forms, of which Zebrina is the most famous.
Thuja Korean (Thuja koraiensis)
is a wide shrub or tree up to 9 m high. The needles are elegant, whitish, almost silvery. However, this attractive plant needs shelter in winter.
Thuja Japanese (Thuja standishii)
grows in natural habitats, in the mountains of Central Japan, up to 18 m in height, it has a wide cone-shaped crown with copper-red bark and silvery branches on the underside, which, when rubbed, smell of eucalyptus caramel and lemon. In cool areas, Japanese thuja grows slowly, in warm areas, growth is noticeably accelerated.
Thuja orientalis (Thuja orientalis), or flattened (Platycladus)
separated into the subgenus biota, of which it is the only representative. In nature, it grows in China, and in culture it has been bred for several centuries in Central Asia. It is a large shrub or sprawling tree with a lacy crown that is widely used in landscaping. Thuja eastern has more than 60 garden forms, unfortunately, not winter-hardy.
We introduced you to the variety of species and forms of one of the most beautiful and unpretentious conifers, but only you can decide which thuja will decorate your yard or garden. However, whatever plant you choose, with proper care, it can delight your eyes for more than a dozen years.
- Read the topic on Wikipedia
- Features and other plants of the Cypress family
- List of all species on The Plant List
- More information on World Flora Online
- Information about Garden Plants
- Information on Perennial Plants
- Shrub Information
Sections: Garden plants Perennials Shrubs Garden trees Ornamental deciduous Plants on T Cypress Conifers
Dicenter: planting and care in the open field
Planting and caring for a dicenter is a simple process that any gardener can easily master. A flower shaped like a heart will adorn any flower bed.
- How to properly plant a dicenter
- When to plant a dicenter
- Where to plant a dicenter
- What can be planted next to the dicenter
- Next to which flowers you can not plant a dicenter
- Planting dicentra rhizome
- How to care for a dicenter in a garden or flower bed
- Watering schedule
- How to feed the dicenter in spring, summer, autumn
- Dicenter care in autumn and preparation for winter
- Dicenter transplant
- When is it better to do a dicenter transplant
- Transplant algorithm
- How to propagate a dicenter
- Propagation of dicentra by cuttings
- Dividing the dicentra bush
- Growing dicentra from seeds
- How to plant dicentra seeds
- How the dicenter rises
- Growing dicentra from seeds at home
- How to keep the dicenter before planting in the ground
- Diseases and pests of dicenter
General information about the plant
Anemone or anemone is a herbaceous perennial. The plant is grown in temperate regions.
- the number of species in nature - more than 140
- popular name - anemone
- shades of petals: white, yellow, pink, blue, crimson pink, cream, lilac, red. Solid petals + contrasting middle or bright border around the edges look spectacular
- bush height - from 30 cm to 1.5 m
- many varieties cannot stand the scorching rays of the sun, prefers partial shade
- some species native to the Mediterranean (tender and crown) like the sun and open areas of the garden
- certain varieties of anemone - shade-resistant
- anemone tubers are a cross between carrots and potatoes, the shape is oval, one end is sharper, the other is rather rounded, irregular in shape
- the flowering period in the open field is from April to November. Some species bloom before leaves appear on fruit trees. With the right selection of varieties, bright anemone colors delight the eye from mid-spring to late autumn.
Taking care of this tree is not difficult at all. Care consists in watering, loosening the earth, infrequent feeding and pruning.
Watering and loosening
Almost all types of thuja are moisture-loving and require frequent watering. In dry summers, it is held twice a month. Young thuja trees are watered even more often. About once a week. Watering largely depends on the type of thuja. For example, eastern thuja is much easier to tolerate drought than western thuja or folded. Dwarf thuja species also require a lot of moisture. You can reduce the amount of watering, keeping moisture in the ground, by mulching. Sawdust, peat, compost can be used as mulch. In special cases, in order not to disturb the decorative effect, it is better to use decorative mulch. It can be freely purchased at gardening stores. Regular loosening also contributes to this.
Note. Thuja roots are located close to the surface of the earth. Therefore, when loosening, one must be careful not to go deeper than 10 centimeters. Otherwise, the roots may be damaged.
A young thuja tree after planting for a couple of years will not need feeding if the planting pit was filled with a prepared nutrient mixture. But after this time, regular feeding will also be required. It is enough to feed the thuja twice a season. Fertilizers for conifers can be used for dressing. The first feeding is carried out at the end of spring. For it, you can use both a specialized fertilizer and a solution of potassium sulfate (a third of a glass per 10 liters of water). The second feeding of thuja in late summer and early autumn is fertilizer for conifers.
It is better not to touch young plants until the age of three. But starting from this age, you can start pruning. In early spring, when the plant wakes up, hygienic pruning is carried out. Dried and damaged branches are removed. The main formative pruning is done in April.
Note. You shouldn't be too zealous. Pruning branches by more than a third will greatly weaken the tree. Also, you should not cut more than one branch of thuja at a time. This leads to negative consequences, up to and including the death of the tree.
Once every few years, formative pruning can be carried out, but not more than a third of the length of the branches. In the future, you should limit yourself to a corrective haircut. This is especially true when creating thuja hedges. By trimming the tops of the branches, you will stimulate thickening, which is what the hedge requires.
Although this plant tolerates transplants normally, it is better to refrain from them. But if such a need has arisen, then it is necessary to prepare for a thuja transplant ahead of time, in the fall. To do this, along the perimeter of the tree, you need to make a markup of an earthen lump, which will be removed. Since the roots of the thuja are located close to the ground, the roots are cut with a sharp shovel along the marking line. By the time of the spring transplant, the roots of the thuja will heal and grow young ones. Such an operation will not only facilitate the extraction of the tree from the ground, but will contribute to its quickest survival in a new place. When digging up a thuja, try to keep the earthy lump as much as possible. It is recommended to plant in a hole in which the earth is mixed with water, earthen slurry. After planting - abundant watering and mulching.
Even the western thuja, adapted to the cold as much as possible, need preliminary preparation for winter, not to mention the more thermophilic species. First of all, you need to take care of the young and dwarf species of thuja. If the winters in your area are frosty, then first of all you need to protect the roots of the plant. The easiest way is to warm up more fallen leaves under the plant, and throw snow in the winter. Thuja branches also need protection. The snow that has fallen on them will easily break them off with its weight. There are special covers for such purposes. But you can do without them by wrapping the branches with covering material or simply tying them with a rope.
Note. Even in winter, thuja continues, although significantly slowed down, but development. You cannot leave it without moisture. Therefore, water the tree abundantly before wintering.
Reproduction of thuja
It is mainly propagated by cuttings, experienced gardeners - by grafting. Reproduction of thuja seeds is also practiced, but this method is less effective and not reliable. Varietal characteristics of thuja grown from seeds does not preserve.
Thuja seeds ripen in autumn. In order to plant in the spring, after the autumn harvest, the seeds must be prepared. To begin with, they must be stratified. That is, for some time they must be exposed to the cold. Sometimes it is practiced to be buried in wet sand in a container, and taken outside for the whole winter. There they are under the snow and go through this cycle. But more often it is done easier. The seeds are also laid in the sand and placed in the refrigerator in the vegetable compartment. The most reliable way is to lay them in early November and hold them until the end of January. Then remove and keep at room temperature until April. By this time, the land will be ready for sowing thuja seeds. They are sealed in a light mixture of turf or coniferous soil and peat. Planting depth is no more than 1.5 centimeters. For reliability, before the emergence of shoots, the garden bed can be covered with plastic wrap. After the emergence of thuja shoots, remove the film. Seedlings grow very slowly, and young plants will have to spend a lot of time on the "children's garden". After a couple of years, they can be transplanted to another, shaded place, where they will have to spend another year or two. After that, the grown seedling can be planted in a permanent place.
Thuja propagation by cuttings
Cuttings are carried out in late spring and early summer. In this case, by the onset of the dormant period, they will have time to take root well. As in the case of a similar reproduction of a juniper, we take a stalk 15-20 centimeters long from tall thuja species. We must try to keep the stalk with a piece of the trunk, a heel. From dwarf varieties, it is also desirable with a heel, but this is not always possible. Therefore, you can take just a stalk three centimeters long.
Note. You should not take many cuttings from one thuja at once. It could hurt her.
Cuttings are planted in a container. In a light mixture, as for planting seeds. Before planting, it is advisable to treat thuja cuttings with Heteroauxin or Kornevin powder. To disinfect the earth and the cuttings themselves, after planting, you can water the cuttings of the thuja with any fungicide or a weak solution of potassium permanganate. After planting, it is better to put the container with cuttings in a greenhouse. But you can also put it in the house. By the fall, the cuttings will give roots. The next spring, young thuja seedlings can be planted in open ground in a temporary growing area or planted in separate containers. In a couple of years, the seedlings will grow up, and they can be planted in a permanent place.
How to care for thuja: video
Fight against diseases and pests when growing thuja in the garden
When cultivated in a garden, the "life tree" can suffer from diseases such as:
- Cytosporosis - a fungal disease, which is necrotic and cancerous in nature, affecting the shoots of thuja. For treatment, you should cut out all affected areas of the bark to living wood with a well-sharpened and disinfected knife and then treat the wounds with a copper solution (1-2%) and cover with garden varnish.
- Fusarium, also having a fungal etymology and leading to a thinning of the crown, its color becomes red or red, the branches begin to dry out. For treatment, it is recommended to inject fungicidal agents under the bark of thuja or to carry out treatment with Fundazol.
- Brown shute or rust , also occurs due to fungi, in which the needles turn yellow and fall off, the branches become bare. For treatment, treatments are carried out with Bordeaux liquid or the drug Kartocid.
Of the pests that damage the plantings of thuja, they emit aphids and false shield ... Usually, pests are clearly visible due to the colony of small bugs (the first) and brown small plaques on the coniferous mass and shoots. The one and the other suck out nutritious juices and contribute to the formation of honeydew - a product of the vital activity of insects, which has a sticky and sugary consistency. The coniferous mass of the “tree of life” acquires an unnatural yellow color and quickly flies around. To get rid of pests, it is recommended to carry out treatment with insecticidal agents, such as Rogor or Karbofos, Actellik and Decis have also proven themselves well. It is recommended to repeat the treatment two weeks later until the insects and their eggs are completely destroyed.
If you decide to plant a thuja in your garden, then choose an area where the sun will not be all day long. Due to direct sunlight, thuja can become dehydrated or get sick from frost in winter. The soil for the thuja should be soddy, with the addition of sand and peat. When planting thujas in a group, you need to maintain a distance between trees (1-5 meters). Do not forget that thuja grow not only in height, but also in width. Planting depth is about 60-80 cm. It is advisable to plant thuja in spring.
Thuja requires minimal maintenance. You need to fertilize thuja once a year (best in spring) followed by mineral or organic fertilizers.
After planting in the first month, watering should be carried out once a week, 10 liters, and in dry weather - several times a week, 20 liters. Thuja prefers moist soils, under this condition, it will always have bright needles and a lush crown. If the soil is dry, the crown will thin out, and the needles will have a yellowish tint.
In the first winter after planting, it is necessary to cover the young tree so that it does not freeze.
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