The strength of small big steps: transhumance yesterday and today

The strength of small big steps: transhumance yesterday and today

The strength of small big steps: transhumance yesterday and today

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Glossary on sheep tracks

  • Setup: ancient tax imposed on large animals in direct proportion to the distance of the places of origin from Puglia
  • Arms: communication routes between several tratturelli
  • Leader of the mass: leader of a group of shepherds with common pasture land
  • Ciavarra and ciavarro: lamb and one year old lamb
  • Compassers: land surveyors in charge of measuring pastures and bottoms
  • Compass: measurement of pastures and funds and related instrument
  • Disorder: cultivation of a smaller or larger surface than that taken in dense. Illegal cultivation of land intended for grazing or portions of sheep tracks
  • Dispensation: distribution of extraordinary unusual herbs
  • Unusual extraordinary weeds: privately owned pastures on which the Customs had the right of first refusal in renting the winter pasture
  • Usual extraordinary weeds: additional pastures to the leases and subject to the same constraint since 1447
  • Statonic weed: summer school, from 8 May to 29 September
  • Vernotica grass: winter pasture, from 30 September to 7 May
  • Fellata: two-year-old sheepTrust: amount of the annual rent that the shepherds paid to the Customs for each head of small or large cattle that came down in winter to the tax pastures of Puglia. It was evaluated differently in the various management systems of the Tavoliere
  • Leased: shepherds located with their flocks in the fiscal pastures of Puglia upon payment of an annual rent called fida
  • Lease: large extension of fiscal land where sheep rested during the winter
  • General lease: pasture for shepherds of the Kingdom or foreigners
  • Particular location: area reserved for the livestock of large landowners
  • Sheep farmer: chief of the shepherds of a rather large herd; he protected the interests of the master and was authorized to make payments
  • Farm herd: breeding of sheep, oxen, cows, horses, pigs
  • Mezzana: plot of land used as pasture for oxen destined for tilling the land; it had the extension of a fifth of the cultivated area
  • Mezzanella: plot of land used as pasture combined with land for cultivation for the sustenance of working animals; it corresponded to less than one fifth of the cultivated area
  • Morra: flock of sheep not less than 200-250 head
  • Musciali: pockets reserved for fly sheep
  • Passed: authorization granted to shepherds to allow them to reach the assigned locations and post offices with their flocks and subsequently, once the rental term has expired, to leave them to return to their usual residence
  • Pastoricchio: young bachelor with guardian duties employed by the shepherdsCarpagne sheep: sheep with coarse wool
  • Kind sheep: sheep with fine wool
  • Unusual sheep: sheep that did not come down to Puglia all years
  • Fluffy sheep: sheep with long and thick wool for mattresses
  • Pagliarole sheep: sheep that remained in Abruzzo and spent the winter in the haystacks
  • Professed sheep: sheep detected at the Customs Officer with the system of the profession
  • Usual sheep: sheep that came down to Puglia every year
  • Wool weighers: appointed by the Customs, he was responsible for weighing the lalana that the shepherds deposited in the warehouses in Foggia
    Patch: small plot of land both for pasture and cultivation
  • Scope or ground scope: land cultivated with a traditional five-year rotation system with two years of cereal cultivation and two resting years; in the two years of rest it was left to graze flockPossible: number of sheep that could be contained in a post or location
  • Mail: portion of the location, sheltered from the wind, placed in the sun, on a slight slope, where the sheep spent the night or the coldest days
  • Fixed mail: mail that was assigned, for special reasons, always to the same flocks
  • Fractured post: placed with patches of shrubs (broken)
  • Postmen: representatives elected to protect the interests of pastors gathered in a post
  • Profession: it was the system that replaced the other of the numbering of cattle, prescribed by Alfonso I of Aragon, and was introduced in 1533 by the Doganiere Ferrante di Sangro. While with the numbering system the trust corresponded to the number of animals to be placed in customs pastures, with the profession (declaration) it was allowed to ask for grazing for a greater number of animals than the real one, and by paying a higher credit line, more grasses were obtained. land of the Tavoliere performed by qualified personnel (land surveyors or collectors) in order to eliminate any abusive occupations
  • Autumn rests: vast expanses of pasture where the cattle were waiting for the assignment of the lease or mail. The rest also functioned from checkpoints and blockade of the flocks for the counting of the heads and therefore the collection of the trust
  • Lateral rests: extensions of pasture placed alongside the sheep tracks to allow the flocks to stop along the way
  • Reveal: declaration of the number of sheep that the leased, in accordance with the profession system, intended to place in the Tavoliere
  • Balance: uncultivated land used only for grazing
  • Specorate: to cease from the activity of breeder of sheep for mortality of animals or for sale of the flock
  • Scrub: sheep and cows that did not give milk
  • Lands in perpetuum: funds of private origin of which since the fifteenth century the Customs with a contract insured the herbs in perpetuity
  • National lands: pasture or cultivated land belonging to pious places
  • Firmly cultivated lands: land that was once used for grazing was rented for cultivation
  • Tratturo: grassy path that was used for the transmigration of flocks, originally calles pubblice, while the privileges enjoyed by the shepherds were called Tractoria in the codes of Justinian and Theodosius. So also these ways assumed the denomination of tractoria, indi tracturi by dialectal phonetic alteration
  • Zurracchio: one year old kid
  • Zurro: billy goat
Bibliography
  • Cialdea D. (2007a), Introduction. In: Cialdea D. (ed :), Molise, a land of transit. The sheep tracks as a model of territorial development: Campobasso Graphic Arts The Region. 9-17
  • Cialdea D. (2007b), Identification of a tratturo-sample: description of its crossing in the different realities of the Molise region In: Cialdea D. (ed :),Molise 17 a land of transit, the tratturi as a model for the development of the territory: Campobasso: Graphic Arts The Region. 51-107
  • Cialdea D. (2007c), The typologies of involvement of the territory around the Pesasseroli-Candela tratturo. (and :), Molise is a land of transit. The sheep tracks as a model of territorial development: Campobasso: Graphic Arts The Region. 19-50
  • State Archives of Chieti Film reconstructions, such as the documentary 'The Transhumances of Europe' made by directors Anna Cavasinni and Fabrizio Franceschell of the Associazione Territori Link. www.leviedeitratturi.com

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Video: Big Steps - 6 May 2020