Oak

Oak

Oak is a symbol of power and greatness. This means that if you decorate the garden with such a tree, then it will grow and delight several generations of your relatives with its beauty.

For normal growth and development, oak requires a large area. Such a tree is decorated with a spreading dense tent-shaped crown, which will give you a big shade. This plant is also attractive because it is undemanding to care.

To grow a powerful oak, it is enough to plant a ready-made seedling on your site. If desired, the tree can also be grown from an acorn.

Features of oak

The widely known deciduous tree oak is a perennial and belongs to the Beech family. The natural area of ​​distribution of such a plant is the northern hemisphere, or rather, regions with a prevailing temperate climate.

The foliage of such a tree has an unusual blade-divided shape, which is characteristic of oak. There are varieties whose leaves are whole. The nut-like fruits that form on the branches are called acorns. This genus is represented not only by trees, but also by shrubs, the maximum height of which is 200-300 centimeters.

Some of the varieties are evergreens. Their spectacular leathery leaf plates do not fly off the branches for several years.

Due to the fact that the powerful branches of such a tree bend, they form a voluminous "tent" that saves from the heat on a hot summer day.

As a rule, the tree gives its first fruits only after it turns 15 years old. But in some cases, the first fruiting is observed after sixty years. The time of the first fruiting is influenced by the area where the oak grows. In an open and sunny area, fruits appear earlier.

Different types of oak differ from each other in color, size and shape of acorns. They are large and small, flattened or elongated, dark brown ("cinnamon" color) or pale brown. The fruits of oak ripen in autumn, more precisely in September and October.

Most of the species of such a plant are characterized by slow growth, while they are long-lived. Their crown grows large, wide and dense. On average, these trees live from 200 to 300 years. However, there are also long-lived oaks, whose age exceeds 2 thousand years.

Such a powerful plant can reach a height of 50 m, and its trunk in girth is from 6 to 7 m. At the same time, there is information that until the oak turns 80 years old, it is actively increasing in height. And after eighty years, it begins to grow rapidly in width.

The young tree is covered with smooth bark, the surface of which is slightly shiny. Over the years, it becomes coarser and cracks are observed.

The start time of oak flowering directly depends on the region, approximately, it falls in April or May. Unisexual small flowers have the appearance of so-called "earrings". Powerful roots go deep into the ground, while branching strongly.

This tree is distinguished by its light-requiring, and it is also demanding on the composition of the soil. Adult specimens are distinguished by high drought and frost resistance. At this age, they hardly need any care.

Interesting facts about oak

Oak belongs to the most powerful and majestic long-lived plants. In ancient Rome, age-old oaks were considered a wonder of the world. Moreover, their age was compared with the age of the Universe itself.

Among the Slavs, the oak was a symbol of one of the main trees of the universe, the so-called "World tree". It was a model of the special relationship of the universe with people. In ancient Greece, the oak symbolized longevity.

This majestic plant is celebrated in its works by many folklorists, poets and composers. On the territory of France you can find a very interesting oak, which is more than 200 years old. A room was made in his hollow, which anyone can visit.

In Virginia oak, wood is highly durable. At the same time, it does not lose this property even when in water. A ship made of such wood could reflect the cannon balls from its own side.

Today, a large number of varieties of oak are used for landscaping squares, parks and adjoining territories.

Types of oaks with photos and names

In total, there are more than 600 species of oak. Those types that are most popular will be discussed below.

White oak (Quercus alba)

This plant comes from North America. This sprawling tall plant has a wide tent-shaped crown with a flat top. The average height of such a tree is about 30 m. The whitish (grayish) bark slightly cracks over time.

Oval lobed leaf plates are rather large. A characteristic feature of this species is that during the period of disclosure, its leaf plates have a deep red color. However, during the summer, their unusual color changes to green. Often, the front surface of the foliage has a bluish tint. This tree is highly decorative and frost-resistant. It is suitable for urban cultivation.

Red Oak (Quercus rubra)

Such a highly decorative species grows well in moist soil, therefore, most often it can be found on the banks of various reservoirs, including rivers. However, this tree reacts negatively to stagnant water. Its average height is about 25 m. The oak is decorated with a leafy and lush crown, while its trunk and branches are covered with a smooth gray bark. Over the years, cracking of the bark has been observed.

The unfolding foliage has a red color, like the young shoots. By the beginning of the summer period, the leaves turn green, and in the fall they turn brown-red. The fruits are brownish-red in color. The plant is distinguished by its photophilousness, resistance to frost and a number of diseases. It is not harmed by side shading.

English or common oak (Quercus robur)

This powerful vigorous plant has an average height of about 50 m. Its main decoration is a spreading crown and an even trunk. This species belongs to long-livers; when optimal conditions are created, it can grow in the same place for about 1–1.5 thousand years.

Before the plant is 40 years old, its bark is brownish-green in color. Over the years, the color becomes darker, almost black. Such a tree grows well in nutritious soil, while it is resistant to drought. This species is widespread in the territory of the Russian Federation.

In culture, the most popular varieties of this species are: weeping oak, columnar and comb-dissected oak.

Marsh oak (Quercus palustris)

The species was named so because of the area in which it prefers to grow in natural conditions. And it grows on the banks of a swampy area, and also next to lakes and rivers. The plant has a slender trunk, the height of which does not exceed 25–30 m.

The lush, spreading crown has a slightly rounded shape. The stems are brown. The trunk is covered with a smooth olive bark. The foliage of the species is green, and in autumn it turns into a spectacular purple. The species is characterized by medium resistance to frost, and it is also picky about the quality and moisture of the soil.

Stone oak (Quercus ilex)

The height of such a spectacular evergreen species is about 25 m. The trunk is covered with a smooth gray bark. The tree is decorated with a lush crown. There is pubescence on the seamy surface of small bright green leaf plates. This fast-growing plant has a high drought and frost resistance, as well as shade tolerance. Grows well on rocky ground.

Large oak (Quercus macrocarpa)

The average height of an adult plant is about 30 m. The shape of the crown looks like a tent. The pale brown bark on the trunk cracks over time. Oval fruits are relatively large, which influenced the choice of the name of the species. The plant is moisture-loving and frost-resistant.

Chestnut Oak (Quercus castaneifolia)

The plant was listed in the Red Book. Its height can reach up to 30 m. Large leaf plates have a shape similar to the sowing chestnut. The front surface is smooth, dark green in color, and the back is gray-gray and has a slight pubescence. The tree is moisture-loving and resistant to frost.

Mongolian Oak (Quercus mongolica)

For the first time, the description of this plant was made in Mongolia, which influenced the choice of the name of the species. Today this variety is widespread in Korea, Japan and Russia (especially in the Far East). On average, such an oak lives from 300 to 400 years.

The height of this plant varies from 20 to 30 m. However, in mountainous areas on stony soil, such an oak occurs in the form of a shrub, the height of which does not exceed 10 m. These features of the plant made it possible to use it to strengthen plantings and slopes in mountainous areas. Small fruits are round in shape.

Rock oak (Quercus petraea)

Such a plant is very similar to the pedunculate oak in its morphological features. However, this species grows well on rocky ground in mountainous areas due to a branched and powerful root system. The maximum tree height is about 30 m. Such a tree in Russia is most widespread in the Caucasus.

Today there are many varieties and forms that are used to decorate various landscapes. In culture, for decorating parks and gardens, decorative forms of oak are most popular, namely: columnar, weeping, and also with a spectacular unusual color of foliage. Most of the varieties obtained in the course of breeding differ from natural species in that they are smaller in size.

Growing an oak from an acorn, planting a seedling

Many gardeners use 3 methods to propagate oak on their site: green cuttings, acorns and ready-made purchased seedlings. In this case, seedlings can be bought in a specialized nursery or garden store.

Oak can be propagated by cuttings. It should be borne in mind that out of 10 one-year-old shoots, approximately 8 will take root, and from the same number of two-year ones - from 4 to 6 pieces.

Where to get acorns

If possible, acorns can be collected with your own hands in the autumn under an adult oak tree. After the acorns are fully ripe, they themselves fall to the soil surface. These acorns can be planted outdoors in autumn. They can also be stored until spring and, with the onset of warmth, start planting.

You can start looking for acorns in spring when the snow has melted. At this time, they will already be hatched or sprouted. It is recommended to plant such fruits immediately in the soil. If necessary, they can be stored for a short time in wet sand.

Sowing preparation

In order for acorns to germinate, they need to be of high quality. Collecting acorns in autumn is carried out only after they have matured well, while the weather must be dry. The acorn's cap protects it from injury. In a well-ripe fruit, it peels off easily.

It is recommended to choose large, whole fruits that are not rotted and do not have bites or cracks. Healthy, strong fruits can be planted without preliminary preparation in the soil in the garden. You can also plant acorns in a container. After the seedlings grow up and get stronger, they are planted in the garden in a permanent place.

To understand whether the fruit is viable in front of you or not, you need to examine its inner part. If the acorn is alive and suitable for planting, then inside it will be yellow, and the embryo will also be clearly visible. In dead fruit, the core is dark in color.

Storage rules for acorns

After preliminary preparation, the fruits of the oak can be sent for storage. The collected acorns are laid out in a dry place and kept for 7-15 days at room temperature. During this time, they should dry out. Then they are removed for storage in a cold (from 0 to 2 degrees) place, while the air humidity should be increased. For example, they can be lowered into a cellar or placed on a refrigerator shelf after placing them in a container filled with sand. The fruits retain their germination for 12 months, so there is no point in storing them longer.

Experts do not advise putting the oak fruit for storage in a tightly closed container or bag, as they may die. During storage, it is recommended that acorns be regularly inspected for mold. When it appears, the fruits are thoroughly washed and dried. Then they are put back into storage.

If the stored fruits look dry and too dark outwardly, then they most likely will not sprout. Before planting, acorns can be tested for germination: they are placed in a container filled with water. Those fruits that have sunk to the bottom are viable. And those acorns that remain on the surface of the water can be thrown away.

You can also save the fruits collected in the fall in the open field. To do this, they are buried in the ground in the garden to a depth of 20 to 25 centimeters. From above they are covered with a material that does not allow water to pass through. Mark the storage location so you can easily find it in the spring.

How to grow an Oak from an acorn. From an acorn to a 25cm seedling.

What time to plant acorns

Planting the harvested fruits can be carried out directly into the soil in the garden. Also, if you wish, you can grow seedlings at home, after which they are planted in open ground. Moreover, the first landing method is the simplest and most common.

Acorns are planted in the fall or fall. If the planting is carried out in the autumn months, then during the winter the fruits will be able to undergo natural stratification. And with the onset of spring, powerful hardened seedlings will appear from them. In autumn, planting is carried out approximately 4 weeks before the first frost.

If the planting is planned to be carried out in the spring, then in this case you need to wait until the soil warms up well.

Planting rules for acorns

In order to prevent overdrying or the appearance of rot during thaws in winter, during planting in the fall, acorns should be buried 70–100 mm into the ground. If the planting is carried out in the spring, then it will be enough to bury the fruits in the soil by 40-50 mm.

To prevent the appearance of mold on acorns due to heavy rainfall, as well as to protect them from animals, plantings carried out in the fall are covered with any material that does not allow water to pass through. It is more reliable to protect acorns from rodents and animals, whose diet includes nut-like fruits, by immersing them for some time in kerosene shortly before disembarkation.

If you are planting several fruits on a school, then first make grooves and moisten them. Between acorns, a distance of 10 to 30 centimeters is maintained, while the distance is influenced by both the size of the fruit itself and the type of oak. When planting is complete, level the ground surface.

When planting hatched fruits, it is necessary to act extremely carefully, because young roots are characterized by increased fragility, that is, they easily break. Planting such fruits can also be carried out directly into the soil in the garden or into a container for germination, while a plastic cup is most often used. First, fill the container with the substrate, to which a little moss is added. Plant the fruit in it, deepening it by 30–40 mm, while the root should be directed downward.Remember that there must be drainage holes on the bottom of the container. Do not forget to water the plantings regularly and provide them with good lighting. After 2 or 3 true leaf plates are formed at the seedlings, they should be cut into larger containers or planted in open ground.

Remember that oak fruit germination is extremely slow. Initially, the development and growth of the root is observed, and only then the shoot appears. The first seedlings can be seen only 4–6 weeks after planting the fruits.

Planting acorn oak and stratification

Sapling selection

It is much easier to plant ready-made purchased seedlings in your garden that are 1 or 2 years old. If the seedling has an open root system, then during transportation it should be wrapped with a cloth, which must be moistened. Cut off any injured roots before planting a seedling. If the root system appears weak, then all stems should be shortened by 1/3 part when planting.

If a seedling has a closed root system, then the chances that it will successfully take root in a new place increase to almost 100 percent. Their landing is carried out immediately to a permanent place, while try not to destroy the earthen lump.

Choosing a landing site

Oak seedlings are recommended to be planted in well-lit open areas, while it should be borne in mind that an adult plant requires a lot of space. The minimum distance from the seedling to the building is 3-4 m, and to the neighboring large plant - 3-6 m. It is highly not recommended to break this rule, because the strong and strong roots of an adult tree can destroy both the blind area located next to the building, and foundation.

Nutritious neutral or slightly acidic soil is best suited for growing oak. A dredge mixture is also suitable, which includes 2 parts of turf soil and sand, and another 1 part of peat. To increase the fertility of the composition, it is recommended to add humus to it.

Growing seedlings in a school

Most often, seedlings that are 1 year old need to be planted in a permanent place in open ground. The transplant stimulates the growth and branching of the seedling's root system. It is recommended to plant such a seedling in the spring. Thanks to this, even if the root system is injured, it will be able to recover even before the kidneys open.

Planting of seedlings is carried out in a moistened soil saturated with nutrients. At first, the planted seedling will “hurt”, and it will also adapt to new conditions. When the tree is fully restored, it will start to grow and its development will begin.

When planting several seedlings, furrows are prepared. Do not forget to keep the distance between plants in 15-20 centimeters. In autumn, the grown seedlings from the school can be transferred to a permanent place. The weakest seedlings can be left at school until next fall.

Planting rules for seedlings

Pit preparation should be done 15–20 days before planting. Its depth should be about half a meter, and its width should be about 1 meter. When digging a hole, the nutritious top layer of the earth must be carefully removed and removed separately. Fill the bottom of the pit with a layer of drainage 10 to 20 centimeters thick. Then the top layer of soil is poured into it, which must first be mixed with fertilizers. Recommended fertilizers: 1 kg of wood ash, 5 to 6 kg of rotted manure, 1.5 to 2 kg of double superphosphate, 5 kg of compost and 60–70 grams of potassium sulfate and chloride.

When planting a seedling, pay attention to the fact that its root collar should rise several centimeters above the soil level. Remember to compact the surface of the soil well around the planted plant, after which it is provided with abundant watering. When the water is completely absorbed into the ground, the surface of the trunk circle should be covered with a layer of mulch, which can be used as compost, mowed weeds or humus.

Oak care

An adult oak does not need any special care. However, the seedling requires more attention from the gardener.

Watering and loosening

Young seedlings need to be systematically watered, weeded, and they are also provided with regular loosening of the soil surface. In comparison with coniferous seedlings, oak is more hardy and drought tolerant. Immediately after planting the seedling, during the first 4–5 days, it must be watered systematically and abundantly. Further, the frequency of watering is adjusted depending on natural precipitation. Remember that during a prolonged drought, a young oak needs timely watering.

When 6 to 8 weeks remain before the massive autumn leaf fall, the oak is no longer watered at all. This is necessary so that the tree can properly prepare for wintering. When the plant is watered, as well as in late autumn, the surface of its near-stem circle must be mulched with wood chips, peat or plucked grass. The layer thickness can vary from 70 to 100 mm.

Fertilizer

The first feeding is carried out in the second year of growth of the planted seedling. In spring, for these purposes, it is recommended to use mineral fertilizers containing nitrogen, for example, ammonium nitrate. Organics such as urea or cow dung are also suitable.

At the beginning of the autumn period, a mineral complex can be added to the soil, for example, nitroammofoska. In the process of planting large-sized seedlings, it is recommended to introduce a biostimulator into the soil. Thanks to him, the plant will take root faster and adapt to new conditions.

Pruning

Sanitary pruning of oak must be carried out every year. To do this, cut out all injured, dried and diseased branches. And you should also cut out all the shoots that grow inside the crown.

At the beginning of the spring, formative pruning is carried out. This is done before sap flow near the tree begins.

In order for the growth of the crown to become slower or stop altogether, the dominant main shoot should be pruned. This procedure should be repeated once every 2 or 3 years.

Preparation for wintering

For several years after planting, the seedlings must be covered for the winter. To do this, mulch the near-stem circle with fallen leaves or peat, and warm the plant itself by wrapping it with a covering material (any will do).

Pests and diseases

Young oak is often affected by powdery mildew, due to which a whitish bloom appears on the surface of the foliage. An adult plant is resistant to this disease. When a young seedling is affected by powdery mildew, it is sprayed with a systemic fungicidal preparation, for example, Fundazole solution (0.8%), copper sulfate (1%) or sulfuric suspension. These drugs can also be used for prophylactic treatments.

Putrid fungi and tinder fungi can also settle on the tree, which can cause necrosis of the stems. Dead branches are cut. Further, the places of the cuts are coated with garden varnish or they are processed with copper sulfate.

Various pests can cause harm to oak. The foliage is occupied by silkworms, moths, scoops, moths or leafworms. Flowers and buds are damaged by gallstone. And acorns can be harmed by moth butterflies and weevils.

To get rid of insect pests, they are treated with an insecticide, for example: Kinmiks, Karbofos, Fitoverm, Intavir, etc. The plant is treated twice: in spring and summer.

Application of oak

Mighty oaks are widely used for landscaping cities. They are not only able to decorate a vast territory, but they can also give shade and coolness on a hot day. It is noteworthy that if an oak grows alone, then a wide crown and a relatively low trunk are formed. When planted in groups, trees grow taller and slender.

Oak gives high-strength wood, and in some species (for example, stone oak) fruits are eaten, and they are also used to make aromatic acorn coffee.

Under the oak tree, if desired, you can grow truffles, which are among the most expensive mushrooms. They grow in symbiosis with the given plant.

Oak bark is widely used as a remedy for diarrhea, infectious diseases of the throat and mouth, inflammation of the gums and other diseases.

Energy healing. Oak is a sacred tree, its healing properties.


How to plant and care for an oak seedling in your garden?

The mighty oak is a well-known deciduous tree, which is often used for landscaping parks and squares, creating picturesque alleys. It gained popularity due to its vitality and undemanding care, the planted seedling can grow in one place for more than 300 years. How to plant an oak tree in your garden? The tree has a strong root system and a spreading crown, so it is difficult to grow it on a small plot of land. In this case, summer residents should pay attention to undersized, decorative varieties.


Types of oak and places of their distribution

There are many varieties of oak, each continent has its own kind. For aesthetic purposes of landscape design, they mainly use such types as:

  • English oak
  • rock oak
  • red oak
  • Mongolian oak
  • chestnut oak, and others.

As we can see, natural zoning ties this type of flora to fertile soils, with a moderate water and temperature balance. For example, in Australia, Africa, Antarctica it is not found.

Articles for gardeners and gardeners

Species differences are in the color and shape of leaves, chestnuts, bark texture and crown of the tree. Consequently, the pedunculate oak has shiny green and even yellowish leaves. The trunk of the tree is covered with gray-brown, cracked bark. Grows in Europe. The rock oak has leaves with a pale green color, chestnut green. Grows in European countries. Red oak is characterized by dark green to brownish leaves, smooth gray bark and brownish acorn. The range of red oak is spread over the territory of temperate latitudes. Mongolian oak has dense, light green leaves, light brown acorn, gray bark. Grows in the countries of the Far East. Chestnut oak has a gray bark, dark green leaves and a greyish acorn. This tree is not only broadleaf, but also evergreen.


To properly transplant an oak, you need to take into account factors such as the place where the oak grows, age, time of year, and evaluate the root system. And also, where you want to transplant the oak.

Let's take a look at how the oak develops at the initial stage. Growing from an acorn, at the beginning the taproot of the oak develops, germinating several tens of centimeters, and only then the stem begins to grow. Therefore, the older your oak tree, the higher the probability of damaging its root system during transplantation.


How to grow an acorn oak at home

Growing an acorn oak at home is an exercise for patient and motivated gardeners. Propagating an oak tree by growing it from an acorn will require diligence and strict adherence to all the rules. The result will be a magnificent tree growing on your site and pride that you were able to grow it from a small fragile sprout.


Oak care

Like any plant, a young oak tree requires care and attention. At first, in an open space, "new settlers" may feel uncomfortable - a new place, soil, lighting. It is important to constantly monitor their condition.

Young shoots are attractive to birds and rodents. To prevent uninvited guests from spoiling the plant, they arrange protection - a small frequent fence around the planting. To avoid the attack of insects, the foliage is treated with pesticides.

Any kind of young oak requires high light and constant moisture. To avoid competition on the site, the area around must be cleared of foreign plants and fast-growing trees.

At first, the oak tree requires constant watering.

You need to take care of the plant until it gets stronger, on average, up to 4-5 years... Upon reaching this time, a young tree up to 1.5 meters high will already flaunt at the dacha.

How to grow an oak is now clear, there is nothing difficult about it, it is enough to be patient for several years.

Already after 30-40 years, a lonely oak begins to bear fruit - once every 6-8 years, acorns ripen on the branches, from which new seedlings can appear.


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